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  Artificial Methods for Birth Control
 
The two natural methods discussed earlier do not guarantee protection against pregnancies.

 
    Following are some artificial methods of birth control, which ensure that the woman does not become pregnant unless she and her husband plan to have a family.

Artificial Methods:
  1. A CONDOM:

         A condom is a device made of fine rubber (latex). The man covers his penis with a condom during sexual intercourse in order to prevent the sperm from entering the vagina. Condoms prevent unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including AIDS. The use of condoms is one of the most reliable and cost-effective methods. But one should take a few precautionary measures before using a condom:
    1. Ensure that it is not torn or ruptured and
    2. Make sure that you are using it before the expiry date.

  2. INTRA UTERINE DEVICE (IUD)/COPPER T:

         It is a birth control device made of soft plastic and has the shape of the English letter T. Copper is wound on the lower part and the end carries two threads. It is placed in the uterus. With the help of the threads placed on the tip of the T, women can check if it is inserted properly. It is a long-term method and prevents pregnancy for 3-5 years. Copper T does not create any problems during copulation and can be used immediately after childbirth. But unlike condoms, it does not protect the user from AIDS and other STDs.

  3. CONTRACEPTIVE PILLS:

         There are several contraceptive pills available in the market, for example Mala D, Mala N, Pearl, etc. Birth control pills, which contain hormones, prevent a woman from getting pregnant if used regularly. One pill has to be taken every night before going to bed. There are two types of packets available in the market,one containing 21 pills and the other containing 28 pills. But no pills should be taken without a doctor's prescription. Contraceptive pills also help women to have regular menstrual cycles and reduce the chances of anaemia. But breast-feeding mothers, especially if the child is less than six months old, should not use contraceptive pills.

  4. INJECTION FOR BIRTH CONTROL:

         Vaccination is another method of birth control. This vaccine is effective for three months and has to be applied four times a year. It is available in the name of DMPA and works in the same way as the pills do. It reduces bleeding during menstruation and helps in preventing cancer.

  5. PERMANENT SOLUTIONS:

         Permanent solutions are the best possible methods if the couple does not want any more children. They are available for both men and women. But male sterilization or vasectomy is easier than female operation or tubectomy. In vasectomy, the duct carrying sperm from the testes to the urethra is cut and tied thereafter no sperms reach the urethra during intercourse. The male can start working normally 48 hours after the operation. It also does not adversely affect erection in the man. Tubectomy is done by tying and cutting off the fallopian tubes. Eggs continue to be released but they are prevented from reaching the uterus. Nowadays it is conducted through telescopic method, which requires only 2-3 stitches.
   
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