In the beginning when the weeds are young and have small root they can be easily
pulled out by hand.
If the weeds have developed long roots they are pulled out by a Khurpi, after
loosening the soil.
The seedbeds often need to be shaded from the following:
Protection against excessive sun
Protection against frost.
Protection against rain and hail.
The shades are made of thatch, mats, split bamboo, polythene or tin sheets. For shades it is preferable to use material that can be rolled and removed easily.
Periodicity of watering should be decided by considering the moisture content in
the soil, as soil should be adequately moist to provide water to the saplings. It
may be noted that over-watering is as harmful as under-watering. Growth of moss
on the nursery bed is an indication of over-watering and is usually followed by
yellowing of leaves and ultimately death of seedlings. In the places where damping
off is feared, addition of little acetic acid, formaldehyde or 4% copper sulphate
in irrigation water prevents damping off.