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Sugarcane (family Gramineae) is the second most important industrial crop of India after cotton.


Sugarcane (family Gramineae) is the second most important industrial crop of India after cotton.

It accounts for about 50 per cent of the total sugar production in the world.

The sugar recovery of the present day sugarcane cultivars is about 10-11 per cent

Climatic requirements

Sugarcane is a tropcal C4 plant but it can also be grown in the sub-tropical areas. The crop requires hot and humid climate for its optimum growth.



Maximum temperature which arrests growth 500 C

Minimum temperature below which growth slows down 200 C

Optimum temperature for growth 26-320 C

Rainfall. Sugarcane grows best in areas having rainfall of 75 to 120 cm per annum.

The average yield of cane in north India is low as compared to that in the southern parts mainly due to the extreme temperature experienced in the northern parts.


It is the cultivation of additional crop(s) from the regrowth of stubbles of the previous main crop after its harvest, thereby avoiding replating. In general, two to three ratoon crops of sugarcane can be taken.


Important points for ratooning

  • It is economical to take only one ratoon.
  • Grow varieties which are suitable for ratooning.
  • Main crop should be harvested in February, not before the end of January, otherwise the ratoon will be gappy because of poor sprouting of stubble due to low temperature.
  • Harvest the canes as close to the ground as possible. The field should be irrigated just after harvesting and burning.
  • Gaps in the field should be irrigated just after harvesting and burning.Gaps in the field should be filled up by planting new cane setts.
  • The nitrogen requirement of a sugarcane ratoon is 20 per cent more as compared to a planted crop.


Advantages of ratooning

  • Reduced cost of production through saving in land preparation and care of the plant during early growth of the seedlings.
  • Reduced crop cycle period for ratoon crop. Better utilization of growing season.
  • Higher yield per unit area in a given period of time.
  • Can be used in breeding to maintain the same plant of a clone through several seasons.
  • Often uses less irrigation water than main crop because of shorter growth period.

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