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It is a large, evergreen tree, 12-8m/1.8-2.4m in height.


How does it look:

It is a large, evergreen tree, 12-8m/1.8-2.4m in height. The bark is grey or nearly black, rough, reddish-brown inside. Fruits are green in colour and turn yellow on ripening.

Silvicultural Characters

Demands light for growth, but survives in shade too. Frost-tender, especially at seedling stage; does not tolerate excessive moisture. Produces root-suckers, especially in dry localities. Coppices and pollards well. Not readily browsed; porcupines damage and kill the trees by gnawing bark. Rate of growth fairly good.


How to grow:

They can be easily raised in the nursery and transplanted for afforestation; germinating seedlings need protection with a thin layer of soil. Should be sparingly watered; fit for transplanting during the first rains; pruning may be done; need protection from frost; weeding promotes growth.


  • Planted for reclaiming acidic soils as it has unique property of mining calcium. Useful for afforestation of dry localities, saline and sandy areas, shallow alluvial soils, black soils, waterlogged areas, saline blanks, clayey, alkaline, dry stony soils or soils with hard calcareous or clay-pans near the surface, for greening bare gullies and ravines and for checking soil-erosion in degraded non-forest-plantation lands, in grasslands, etc.; used for agro-forestry. Increases soil-fertility and water-holding capacity; useful roadside tree with excellent shade during summer; grown as windbreaks.

  • Its wood is pest-proof. Is used for making furniture, agriculture implements, boards, pencils, oil mills, small articles, images, toys, and drums. Suitable for small bridges.

  • Every part of the plant is medicinal; most important being the fruit. Fruit extract has anti-diabetic, antibacterial and antiviral properties and is successfully used for curing stomach-worms and ulcers.

  • Bark is an astringent, beneficial in malarial fever and useful in cutaneous diseases. Also yields a gum (East-India Gum); stimulant, demulcent, tonic; useful in catarrha and other affections; substituted for gum arabic and used by silk-dyers in colours. A fibre is obtained for ropes; Root bark:Also used as astringent, tonic and antiperiodic.

  • Its twigs are used for dental massage and cleaning.

  • Leaf extract possesses antiviral, antidiabetic and antibacterial properties; delays clotting of blood; yields as essential oil (0.13%). Used as insect-repellent in clothes, grain and as nematocide, and as manure and mulch.

  • Flowers are eaten raw or in curries and soups, or fried; useful in atonic dyspepsia and general debility. Yields a nectar and an oil.

  • Fruit pulp is edible by humans and animals. Astringent, toxic, antiperiodic, purgative, emollient, anthelmintic; pulp-water can be used as insecticide and manure.

  • Powdered kernel is mixed with grains is used to repel insects without any adverse effect.

  • Seed cake : Rich food :used as manure; more useful for sugarcane, cotton and paddy; also inhibits nitrification; possesses, insecticidal and nematicidal properties. Processed cake good for poultry.

Where to sell:

  • Wood can be sold to furniture shops as well as timber merchants.

  • All parts of the plant - bark, leaves, fruit, flowers can be sold to pharmaceutical companies; they are constituent of a large number of medicinal preparations.


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