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  Commercial Trees
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  Types Of Farming


A large, much-branched tree, 30m/3.6 m in height.


How does it look:

A large, much-branched tree, 30m/3.6 m in height. Bark - brown or grayish, fairly smooth, up to 2.5 cm thick, with shallow depressions.

Silvicultural Characters

A shade-bearer. Mature trees are drought-and frost-hardy. Remarkable coppicer. Not readily browsed by cattle.

How to grow:

Seeds are either sown directly in August or nursery-raised seedlings are transplanted during July. Care should be taken that moisture is present and to prevent injury to roots, several vegetative methods, such as stumps, hormone-treated cuttings, grafting have been found successful. On the roadsides, they are planted 12 m apart and for windbreaks at 6m. Manuring during pre-bearing period has been recommended.



  • Recommended for reclaiming saline, alkaline, wetlands and waterlogged areas. Also recommended for agro- and social forestry as shade-tree and windbreaks.

  • Wood used for construction, boat-building, implements, furniture, sleepers, troughs and tea chests.

  • Is a moderately good fuel (sapwood, 4834 kcal/kg).

  • Fodder :Leaf (crude protein, 9.1% palatable for cattle, sheep and goats. Tassar-silkworms feed on the leaf.

  • Bark :Used for dyeing and tanning. Astringent; decoction used as mouth-wash and gargle and powder in diarrhoea and dysentery. Extract very useful in diabetes. Flower :A major source of honey in North India.

  • Ripe fruits are widely eaten (protein, 0.7%). Used for making jelly, jam, preserve, squash and wine-making. Contains an essential oil which possesses antimicrobial properties. Extracts reduce blood sugar and glycosuria; fresh seed better.

  • Extracts of bark, stem, leaf, buds and flowers possess moderate antibiotic activity.

Where to sell:

  • Wood can be sold to timber merchants.

  • Bark can be sold to dye making industries also to pharmaceutical companies

  • Ripe fruits, bark, stem, leaves. flowers can also be sold to pharmaceutical companies for extracting medicinal value.

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