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It is an evergreen, aromatic tree.


How does it look:

Is an evergreen, aromatic tree. Some species reach enormous size near the coasts and on mountains and some are dwarf or stunted shrubs. Flowers are white, rarely yellowish or some shade of red. Fruit is a capsule, sometimes hard and woody.

Eucalyptus was introduced into India around 1790, mainly for ornament on the Nandi hills near Bangalore.

Silvicultural Characters

Eucalyptus are light demanders. They usually have a spreading root system and are generally wind-firm. Young plants need protection from frost for 1-2 years. Young trees and species with thin or deciduous bark are susceptible to fire, though they have a good power of recovery. Many species coppice well. They are not browsed by goats

How to grow:

Reproduces from seeds. Seeds are sown during February-March in beds composed of loam and decayed manure, 10.2-12.5 cm deep or in flat boxes. Normally, 4-6 week-old, 5-10 cm high seedlings are pricked out at 5.0-7.5 cm apart, and for naked-root plants pricked out at 10 cm asunder, with protection from the mid-day sun till established. Irrigation should be controlled. Seedlings are transplanted in baskets, bamboo-tubes or polythene-bags, which are later established in pits when 30 cm high.

In plantations Eucalyptus is generally planted in single or multiple rows. A spacing of 2.4-3.6 m x 2.4-3.6 m is adopted on good soils for vigorous species for clear boles; closer spacing is given on poor soils for slow-growing species which tend to branch low. Weeding and working of soil once a month during the first few years are necessary. Crop is thinned between sixth and tenth year.


  • Eucalyptus has continuously been planted for afforestation of various types of soils under a variety of climates - in arid and semi-arid areas, waterlogged areas, cold deserts, on river and canal banks, bare hillsides, and other degraded soils, such as saline and alkaline soils, skeletal, sodic, laterite soils, shallow soils, sand-dunes and saline sandy beaches.

  • Is an important hardwood-yielding plant. Some species possess the hardest, heaviest and the most durable wood. In India, the species are mainly exploited for fuel (E. globulus), and also for timber; essential oil is a byproduct. These timbers are employed for transmission poles, packing-cases, crates, boxes, beams, columns, poles and posts, bridges, wharves, railway-sleepers, cask-staves, palings, and for veneer, plywood, building-board industries, etc. Also suitable for pulp and rayon.

  • Most of the woods are good firewood. Older trees tend to have higher density and burn better (4800 kcal/kg).

  • On steam-distillation, leaves and branchlets of several species yield essential oils. These vary in composition, and may be grouped under :(i) pharmaceutical or medicinal oils, (ii) industrial oils, and (iii) perfumery oils.

  • Agroforestry :Since Eucalyptus are adaptable to various climatic and edaptic conditions and also give minimum shade, the species can be combined with various types of crops, depending upon the need. Eucalyptus, suited to arid and semi-arid areas, can be combined with arable crops only at a wide spacing (4m x 4m or more) and only for the first 3-4 years of the rotation. They can successfully be grown in between rows for several years, as the thin canopy of Eucalyptus does not prevent much light.

  • Eucalyptus has also been recommended for and planted under social forestry. They are cultivated for energy for commercial utilisation. Large-scale plantation of shelter belts, windbreaks, hedges and on roadsides have become very common. The species have gained importance because of fast growth rate and high quantity of biomass and ease of cultivation.

Where to sell:

  • Wood is extensively used so can be sold at wholesale wood shops and also for firewood.

  • Leaves can be sold to pharmaceutical companies for extracting medicinal oils. Can also be sold to perfumery industries.

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