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A medium-sized to large tree. The stem/trunk is usually with short, bole and large rounded crown.

How does it look:

A medium-sized to large tree. The stem/trunk is usually with short, bole and largerounded crown. Bark is dark-coloured or gray. Flowers are small, fleshy, cream-coloured, sweet-scented. They bloom during February-April. Fruits are ovoid, up to 5cm long, greenish, turning reddish yellow or orange when ripe. Seeds are brown, ovoid and smooth.

Silvicultural Characters

A strong light-demander, with a spreading root system. Capable of thriving on poor, dry ground. Generally drought-and frost-hardy. Coppices fairly well when cut during dry season. Cattle and deer may browse the seedlings. Attacked by Loranthus spp.

How to grow:

Seeds germinate in the early rains soon after falling. In nursery it is propagated either by direct sowing of fresh seeds or nursery-raised transplants in July. For forests, direct sowing in lines or patches is preferred. Transplanting is risky with a long, delicate taproot. For transplants, seed should be sown in pots or baskets and watered sparingly. Can be transplanted in the second rains. Stumps also can be employed.


  • Recommended for saline and alkaline, black soils and waterlogged areas for reclamation and afforestation.

  • Wood used for beams, doors, frames, carriages, furniture, agricultural implements, sports-goods, musical instruments; and pulp.

  • Is a good firewood (sapwood, 4890-4978 kcal; heartwood, 5005-5224 kcal/kg).

  • Fodder :Leaf given to cattle (crude protein, 9.4%); also used as green manure. Fresh or exhausted flowers are also given as feed.

  • Bark yields a rubbery product; contains tannins (17%) and used in tanning and dyeing. Used the rheumatism, ulcer, itches, bleeding-gums, tonsillitis and diabetes.

  • Flowers are eaten raw or cooked, or after frying or baking into cakes. Petals are rich in sugar and appreciable amounts of vitamins and calcium. Used for preparing liquors, vinegar, and syrup useful for jams and sweetmeats; syrup is used as a substitute for honey. Is cooling, given as tonic and demulcent and in coughs and colds and bronchitis. Possesses antibacterial activity. Honey edible and employed in eye-diseases. Fruit is eaten raw, ripe or cooked (protein, 1.37%). Seeds possess spermicidal activity on human semen. Activated carbon can be prepared from seeds. Seed kernel yields an edible oil (20-43%), Mahua Oil or Mahua Butter, used for soaps. Refined oil used for lubrication, candles.

Where to sell:

  • Wood can be sold to wholesale wood shops.

  • Tree bark can be sold to dye manufacturing industries. Can also be sold to pharmaceutical companies to extract medicinal value.

  • Seeds can be sold to oil and soap manufacturers.


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